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The modern disaster prevention systems and the Iwakura mission
Ritsumeikan University News Letter No.2 (March 2004)

When researching the disaster prevention system of Japan from a historical viewpoint, we realize that Meiji Restoration is a big turning point. For instance, a dramatic change of the urban disaster prevention to a fire is shown at this time. In the Edo period, the existence of so-called Machibikeshi such as Megumi, that is familiar in Jidaigeki (period play), is known well. Also there are several other systems like Daimyohikeshi that are really feudalistic systems in which each system has each jurisdiction over each town delimited according to each social position. As for technique, in order to prevent catching fire from other burning buildings, open spaces are made by destroying the houses surrounding on the fire ground. In this way, the disaster prevention system in the Edo period lacked the powerful authority that integrated the system itself and used the technique corresponding to each situation.

However, from the birth of the new Meiji era government, the disaster prevention system modernizes rapidly. First, the fire fighting system that has jurisdiction over the whole area in the city is put in the police authority power and the command instruction to people comes to be done firmly. And it comes to be going to begin to link with the problem of the city planning such as reorganization of weak residential areas to a fire and the maintenance of water service over the whole area of the city. In addition, a lot of modern fire apparatuses such as pumps are introduced, and it changes into the way that does fire fighting directly to the place where a fire started. Then, why was such a change brought? As a matter of fact, the researches with such an aspect have been neglected most in the field of history. While the ones that introduction of modern fire fighting system was researched from the viewpoint of history of systems exist, the ones that the transformation of disaster prevention consciousness and disaster prevention thought that exist in the background of the change was studied have been extremely few.

This time, in taking up the problem of urban disaster by the COE program, the principal object of the researches on us who take charge of the field of history is to examine the birth of such a modern disaster prevention system deeply. What kinds of disaster prevention systems did the modern period invent? How have disaster prevention thought and disaster prevention consciousness that are background from which disaster prevention system is invented been formed and constructed? How did it infiltrate the leader layer and the people in Kyoto?

Afterwards, what influence has it given to the city planning of Kyoto? We would like to clarify these through this research. And now, in this 21st century, we think that it is our one obligation to construct a big plan of 100 years for the future. We think that we drastically need to re-examine the merits and demerits of the disaster prevention system and disaster prevention thought that have been invented in accumulation of history and we should not see natural "common knowledge" and tacit "consent" as taboo and should enter there boldly.

Well, though introductory remarks has become long, now we are advancing the research of the encounter of Japan and the modern disaster prevention system by paying attention to the existence of Iwakura Mission. One of the purposes of this mission that made a round of calls to the main nations of Europe and America from Meiji 4 (1871) to Meiji 6 (1873) was to learn the excellent technology and thought of the West, and to tell the truth this mission is greatly related with the problem of the urban disaster prevention while travelling around the American continent. The mission that visited Chicago in Meiji 5 (1872) did witness the tragedy of the conflagration that hit Chicago immediately before that. Collapse of a lot of buildings and spectacles of burnt-out areas surprised the mission and 5,000 dollars were contributed from ambassador Iwakura to the city. At first the mission seems to have thought that such a problem did not occur if the city was covered by buildings of stone and brick, but they learnt that even a modern city like Chicago was annihilated due to a fire. Afterwards, they were interested in the disaster prevention system of the United States, and were doing a detailed observation. They devoted themselves to modern fire fighting technology including pumps, and moreover they were surprised very much because a fire station took the big initiative from the control of residents to the decision of city planning. How was this experience connected with the disaster prevention system of Japan afterwards? How did it change the cityscape of Kyoto? Don't miss the researches in the future!

Royal Swedish and Norwegian Vice Consulate, Washington, April 26 1872
Malling-Hansen Society

Prince Iwakura Tmomi, leader of the Japanese diplomatic Iwakura-Mission. The mission had a very ambitious scope involving more than 100 people and covering study visits to some 22 countries over a period of almost two years from December 23, 1871 until September 13, 1873. The purposes were to renegotiate treaties with the U.S.A. and other western countries as well as to gather information on education, technology, culture and military, social and economic structures visited in order to effect the modernization of Japan. The mission did visit Washington and it is possible that Clausen had a chance to show the writing ball to the Japanese dignitaries. Later on the mission also visited Denmark.

The Press And Politics In Japan A Study Of The Relation Between The Newspaper And The Political Development Of Modern Japan
Internet Archive

On January 14, 1874, the Minister-of-the-Right, Prince Iwakura, one of the leading pacifists, was attacked by nine assassins and badly injured. A few weeks after that a rebellion was started at Saga of Kyushu Island by Shimpei Ito, who had recently resigned his high official position of Minister of Justice and of State Councilor on account.

This description is a good example of the manipulation of the information by the Japanese government. As the Japan's conspiracy shows, Iwakura was never a pacifist. In this attack, he was never badly injured. Instead, he was slightly injured according to the Japanese Wikipedia.

In addition, it is very strange that nine assassins failed to kill just a single person. Iwakura fell into the river, but no assassins tried to chase him. In the end, all of them were later arrested and executed. This kind of blunder is impossible for such resolute assassins.

The international position of Japan as a great power
Internet Archive

On receiving the rq)ort of Mr. Soyejima, a majority of the cabinet recommended that an expedition be undertaken first to Korea. Shortly afterwards Coimt Iwakura, envoy to America and Europe, returned to Japan and condemned the warlike policy, especially attacking the proposed Korean expedition. The cabinet was then reorganized by the Heiwato, or peace party, but it was unable to stem the current of popular feeling. The late minister of war. General Saigo, and the ex-minister of justice, Yeto, retired to their own provinces and plotted the overthrow of the new cabinet ; Prime Minister Iwakura barely escaped assassination at Kuichigai. The imperial government finally determined to send an expedition to Formosa, in order to appease the warlike spirit and maintain peace at home. The expedition was officially announced on April 17, 1874, and Major Saigo, younger brother of General Saigo, was appointed to command it.^ American transports and officers were to take part. Ex-Lieutenant-Commander Cassell, United States navy, was offered the rank of lieutenant-commander in the Japanese navy, Lieutenant Wasson was engaged as a military engineer, and General Le Gendre was attached to the '' Banchir-Jimu-Kioku" (staff of the expedition against the savages).

Events Mark 100th Anniversary of Patriot`s Death

Ceremonies at home and abroad were held yesterday to mark the centennial anniversary of the death of Korean pro-independence activist An Jung-geun.

A commemorative event was held under the theme “100 Years of Memory” at the Chosun Art Museum in Harbin in China’s Heilongjiang province, the site where An assassinated the Japanese colonial governor-general Hirobumi Ito.

Some 200 people from the Korean Patriots and Veterans Affairs Ministry, the Korea Liberation Association, the Independence Hall of Korea, the National Institute of Korean History, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the museum, and the Harbin city government attended.

The ceremony started with a gun sound coming from a documentary on Ito’s assassination at Harbin Station.

Kim Joo-hyeon, the head of the Independence Hall of Korea, said in a speech on behalf of the patriots minister, “The spirit of An, who dreamed of not just Korea’s independence but also the prosperity of Korean independence, is globally respected across the border to China and Japan.”

Piao Jianyi, chief of the Center of Korean Peninsula Studies at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said, “Let’s start a project to realize An’s theory of peace in Northeast Asia by creating a fund between Korea and Japan.”

Following the event, a dedication ceremony unveiled a statue of An in the museum made with the ministry’s support.

Korean Prime Minister Chung Un-chan and other major Korean officials, members of the Korea Liberation Association, An’s descendants including his granddaughter Yeon-ho, 72, and some 1,200 citizens attended a ceremony hosted by the Memorial Association of An Jung-geun at the plaza in front of Patriot An Jung-geun Memorial Hall.

The event included a performance, commemorative remarks, the singing of the song of the Korean liberation army, and cheers under the theme of “100 Years of Patriotism and 1,000 Years of Prosperity.”

Prime Minister Chung said in a speech, “Patriot An is a representation of our proud national spirit and a beacon of hope that awakens world peace. His concept of peace in the East and co-prosperity is a good model for many people around the world.”

A century on, true picture of Korean independence fighter still veiled
YONHAP NEWS 2009/10/25

The late An Jung-geun (1877-1910) is one of Korea's most honored independence fighters, hailed for his daring assassination of the peninsula's first Japanese Governor-General Hirobumi Ito to protest its annexation.

Monday marks the 100th anniversary of An's patriotic deed, told and retold countless times in textbooks and through various artistic genres over the past century. Yet, many aspects of An's life as a nationalist, pan-Asianist and devout Catholic remain unknown even among locals, shrouded by a lack of historical research, scholars here say.

"A century has passed, but An's assassination of the Japanese governor-general is often told to people without some important details," said Prof. Cho Kwang, who teaches Korean history at Korea University in Seoul. "He was neither just a terrorist nor a soldier. We must also view him through the various achievements he made in education, the economy and religion to properly understand him."

An's pan-Asian theory is also worth noting as it is applicable to current diplomacy, Cho added.

"His assassination of Ito, as well as his diplomatic views, played an important role in Korea's independence movement," he said.

Born in the northern city of Haeju, in what is now North Korea, An worked first in education, later joining the armed resistance against the Japanese colonial rulers. While fleeing, he took refuge with a priest of the Roman Catholic Church and converted to Catholicism in 1897. He was baptized as Thomas An.

Going against the teachings of his newfound Catholic faith, however, An assassinated Ito at a railway platform in Harbin in 1909 and was executed on March 26, 1910. The death of the Japanese politician resulted in the acceleration of Japan's colonization of Korea.

An strongly believed in the union and restoration of peace between China, Korea and Japan in order to counter and fight off the "White Peril" of European colonialism, according to writings he left behind.

An felt that with the death of Ito, Japan and Korea could then forge friendly relations through their many shared traditions. He hoped that such ties could also be formed with China, and that this pan-Asian unity could then become a model for the world to follow, An said in his unfinished essay "On Peace in East Asia."

While most Japanese textbooks depict An as a terrorist and assassin, movements are now afoot in the country among civic groups and scholars to reevaluate him based on historical facts.

In March, a group of Korean and Japanese scholars held an exhibition at Kyoto's Ryukoku University featuring calligraphic works and photographs of An.

During a symposium held as part of the event, participants shared their views on An's pan-Asianism and whether the assassination of Ito resulted from Japan's unjust annexation of Korea.

Such changes in views of An among Japanese are also largely due to records of his companionship with his Japanese prison guards and lawyers as well as Japanese prisoners in Korea.

An recorded in his autobiography during his time in a Japanese prison that public prosecutor Takao Mizobuchi told him, "From what you have told me, it is clear that you are a righteous man of East Asia. I can't believe a sentence of death will be imposed on a righteous man."

An writes he was sure that most Japanese felt similar hatred for Ito, an opinion he formed through talks with Japanese prisoners in Korea. He also records special friendships with Japanese prison guards, lawyers and prosecutors during his time in prison and on trial.

Eom Chang-joon, a professor at Japan's Ritsumeikan University, said the reevaluation of An in Japan is "critical to peace between Korea and Japan as well as throughout East Asia."

"An is among the few people widely known in both countries but regarded with two contrasting views," he said. "I consider it very important for Japanese people to have a correct view of An and his history."

In the city of Harbin, the site of Ito's assassination, there is a special exhibition featuring documents on An. An annual Korean Week festival has been held to expand ties with South Korea since 2006 in the Chinese city, where An is considered a patriot and hero among the majority of residents.

On Oct. 26, a statue of An will be set up at the Chosun Art Museum, located in central Harbin, commemorating An's heroic deed 100 years ago. It will stand at the entrance to the An Jung-geun commemorative hall within the museum, which receives financial support from the Chinese government.

In January 2006, the Chinese city removed a statue of An set up by a Korean businessman, saying it was not approved by the government.




Premiere Date:October 26th, 1979


Mr Skin is a big fan of this TV Show! He especially likes the work of these stars:

Kazuko Yoshiyuki

Her siblings and father were all writers, but Japanese act-chest Kazuko Yoshiyuki took a more visual approach to the arts. The results are a real pants turner in Lady Snowblood 2: Love Song of Vengeance (1974). Her kimono is open for a mam-handling good look.

Koizumi's clout wanes; LDP out of favor
JapanTimes March 18, 2009

Former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi still ranks high in public opinion polls as the lawmaker most suitable as prime minister, but his political clout no longer appears to be what it once was.

Last month, Koizumi rebuked Prime Minister Taro Aso and walked out a House of Representatives session March 4 when the ruling bloc approved the cash handout plan.

Koizumi was apparently angry, as Aso made a series of comments against his structural reform pillar, the postal system privatization, while trying to push his own bill through the Diet using the Liberal Democratic Party seats obtained under the popular Koizumi in the 2005 election.

The move by Koizumi, who maintained high popularity rates throughout his 2001-2006 stint in office, was a seismic jolt to the LDP, which has already been frayed by conflict among its members over the contentious cash handout plan as well as other issues, including calls for an increase in the consumption tax.

But when push came to shove, nothing really happened. Other than Koizumi, only LDP colleague Jiro Ono abstained from voting.

The impact of Koizumi's comments was less than expected and disappointed the opposition camp led by the Democratic Party of Japan. The DPJ had high hopes that some LDP lawmakers would rebel against the cash benefit-related bill in tandem with Koizumi.

"It's a sign that the edge of his knife has become dull," said Yasunori Sone, a political science professor at Keio University in Tokyo. If Koizumi had not declared that he intends to retire from politics, "the impact could have been somewhat greater, but not critical," he added.

Koizumi, who has said he will exit politics when the next general election is called, "no longer has great influence," according to Azuma Koshiishi, head of the DPJ's House of Councilors caucus.

One Upper House member of the LDP said Koizumi has already been "stripped of his magical powers."

Yet he still enjoys strong public popularity, as seen in a recent poll by a major daily. The poll showed he was deemed the most suitable to be prime minister, besting DPJ President Ichiro Ozawa, not to mention Aso, who has seen his support rates plummet to single-digit levels.

Koizumi was popular because "he demonstrated great leadership skills and once he set a direction, he pressed on toward his goal," Sone said, referring to the postal privatization and other structural reforms Koizumi spearheaded.

By saying he would "destroy the LDP," Koizumi also helped unite the party, which was teetering under his unpopular predecessor, Yoshiro Mori, and raised public expectations that he could bring about a long-awaited change in the nation's stagnant politics.

But Koizumi's reforms are now regarded as a huge negative legacy for the LDP as they have deprived the party of its large traditional rural power base, said Tomoaki Iwai, a professor at Nihon University in Tokyo.

The party was already divided over how to assess Koizumi-style reforms even when he was in office, but what was a "potential chasm" has become more visible, said Jun Iio, a professor at the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies in Tokyo.

In a Kyodo News survey last year, more than 60 percent of respondents said they favored reviewing Koizumi's postal privatization, and the figure came in at as high as 46 percent among LDP supporters.

The result signals public disappointment in his painful structural reforms, which are often blamed for the recent increase in massive layoffs of temp workers and the widening disparity between urban and rural areas.

Juusan-Nin No Shikaku (1963) Thirteen Assassins
Warez Group

The first part of director Eiichi Kudo's Samurai Revolution Trilogy, Thirteen Assassins opens with a voice-over narration, setting the time (1844, late in the Tokugawa Shogunate), place (Edo, the future Tokyo), and cause of the action. The younger half-brother of the shogun, Sir Naritsugu (Kantaro Suga), who has been “adopted” into the wealthy and lordly Matsudaira clan for the sake of propriety, has been running amok, raping and murdering vassals, including samurai. In a final, desperate effort to force the shogunate to bring the rogue noble to heel, the Matsudaira chamberlain has committed seppuku (ritual self-disembowelment) on the doorstep of Edo Castle.

Cornered into doing something about Naritsugu, but unable to do anything openly lest the ruling house’s own reputation fall into disrepute, the government’s chief minister convinces hatamoto (high-level) samurai Shinzaemon Shimada (Chiezo Kataoka, a star of period samurai films since the 1920s) to gather a band of fellow warriors and murder Naritsugu when he makes his annual journey from Edo to his domain, a journey which should take at least a week. (The shoguns forced Japan’s nobles to spend one half the year in Edo, and one half in their home territories. The sumptuousness of their Edo residences and the size and make-up of their entourages were matters of official fiat, all the better to keep potentially restive lords spending money and time on their obligations.)

・・・・・・・・・・・ partially abbreviated ・・・・・・・・・・・・・

Thirteen Assassin’s climax occurs in a tiny village which Shinzo and his men turn into a maze of deadly traps that should let them overpower that larger force and murder Naritsugu. It’s here that Kudo can pull one more amazing feat – or series of feats – as the shape and geography of narrow lanes and alleyways dictate the very form of the screen. Lastly, when Shinzo meets Hinbei mano a mano, Kudo uses exactly one shot to invoke the repressive vertical lines of the early sequences, actually incorporating Shinzo’s very body into the composition by shooting it with perfect exactness through wooden slats. It’s a devastating irony, capturing the movie’s hero at his greatest moment of triumph, but undercutting it so that his slashing swordsmanship, while it may kill an enemy almost arbitrarily set against him, cannot free him himself from lethal manipulations from the palace.

This is also where we should pay attention to the time period: 1844. That was two years after the western naval powers had imposed their combined will on China, effectively wresting control away from the imperial government. Now, the Dutch (who had once held and then lost trading concessions in Japan) had sent a fleet across the sea to try and pry open their former trading partner’s ports. They’d fail for the moment, but just the attempt showed that the shogunate, which expended so much military power against suspected domestic opponents, would ultimately have no answer to western guns. So all the backstabbing and plotting – as in murdering a member of the royal family only because his sins might breed a scandal – would be for naught.

Koizumi's 'assassins' get set for poll
BBC News 7 September 2005

But his latest move is probably his most controversial yet - he has lined up a raft of celebrities and political novices to run on his ticket in Sunday's election.

Many have been dubbed Mr Koizumi's "assassins" by the Japanese media because they are standing against more than 20 former members of the prime minister's own party, whom he wants removed from parliament.

Mr Koizumi is so keen to get rid of the rebels because they voted down a key reform proposal last month and he banned them from running for the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) as a result.

The "assassins", also dubbed "female ninjas", include Satsuki Katayama, a former Miss Tokyo University turned finance ministry bureaucrat, and Environment Minister Yuriko Koike, a household name as a one-time news anchorwoman.

They also include Takafumi Horie, an internet entrepreneur known for his spiky hair and brash image. Although he is technically running as an independent, Mr Horie is a keen supporter of the prime minister.

tangorin.com (English-Japanese Dictionary)

teacher 先生 sensei

Aso's team digging for 'buried funds'
JapanTimes Oct. 23, 2008

With Prime Minister Taro Aso's government and ruling coalition lawmakers busy compiling a second economic stimulus package by the end of this month, the latest political catchphrase has become "Kasumigaseki maizokin," or buried funds in the Kasumigaseki district, the seat of the central government.

The phrase gives the impression there is a mythical buried treasure that can be tapped by the cash-strapped government. But few can explain what it actually is and why it suddenly became the talk of Tokyo.

Following are questions and answers concerning the buried funds:

What are Kasumigaseki maizokin?

They are cash reserves accumulated in 21 special government accounts.

The government has three types of budgets — the general account budget, the special account budget, and the "zaito" fiscal investment and loan programs budget.

The general account budget is used for policy-related expenses, including bond issuance, local government subsidies and social welfare costs, while the zaito budget is used to invest in and extend loans to long-term projects, including road construction.

The special account budget is used for specific government projects, using revenues closely related to that project. For instance, the government uses the gasoline and coal tax to develop new oil and gas fields under a special energy policies account.

Reserves are set aside in each of these 21 special accounts, which amounted to ¥198 trillion as of the end of March.

About ¥138 trillion was reserved for a special account for the nation's pension system, ¥17 trillion for a special account to ensure the stability of the foreign-exchange market and another ¥10 trillion under a special account managing government bonds.

Does that mean the government has ¥198 trillion in financial resources it can use for any purpose?

Not necessarily. The reserves exist for a reason. A large portion is used for pension payments, insurance payments and to repay government bonds.

But politicians claim some of the reserves are too big for their purposes.

When Aso was campaigning for the Liberal Democratic Party presidency, he estimated that about ¥40 trillion of such reserves could be shifted to the general account budget to be used for other purposes.

Politicians are especially targeting the ¥17 trillion zaito special account reserves and another ¥17 trillion in reserves set aside under the foreign-exchange special account.

The zaito special account budget is used to extend long-term fixed interest rate loans to government-affiliated organizations. The reserves are set aside to hedge the risk of future interest rate hikes.

As for the reserves of the foreign-exchange special account, the Finance Ministry claims they are necessary to cover the losses incurred when the yen climbs against the dollar.

But the recent strong yen trend is casting doubt on whether the government can actually tap into those reserves.

Finance Minister Shoichi Nakagawa told the Diet earlier this month the government will incur about ¥19 trillion in unrealized losses on its foreign currency assets — the same amount it currently has in its reserves — if the yen climbs to 99 against the dollar.

Why have these special account reserves suddenly gained attention?

One reason is many feel a general election may be looming.

The U.S. financial crisis triggered by the bankruptcy of investment bank Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. in September caused stock markets around the world to nosedive and weakened the global economy.

Japan didn't emerge unscathed, as the Tokyo Stock Exchange's Nikkei average plunged and the economy fell further toward recession.

Aso wants to impress voters with the economic stimulus packages. But the question is, how will he come up with the resources to finance them? This fiscal year's corporate tax revenues will inevitably decline, while social welfare costs continue to balloon.

Aso doesn't want to talk about raising the consumption tax before a general election and it may in any case be a few years before the government can actually hike the rate.

That is why politicians have suddenly started talking about buried funds.

Floods kill 1,145 people in China
Kitsap Sun

From Sun news services Saturday, July 25, 1998

BEIJING - Floods from torrential rains have killed 145 people in three Chinese provinces hit unusually hard by seasonal summer rains, pushing the nationwide death toll to 1,145, state media said today.

The latest casualties were reported in Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi in the south and center of the country. They are among the provinces worst hit by rains this year that came earlier and fell harder than usual.

The majority of deaths have resulted from drownings, collapsing houses, lightning, mud flows and landslides from mountain torrents, the official newspaper China Daily said.

The floods in the three provinces have forced the emergency relocation of 900,000 people since last Friday and have destroyed 250,000 houses and damaged another 780,000, the newspaper said.

More than 3 million people in Hunan have been affected, it said.

One of the worst-hit counties was Huangmei, in Hubei, where floodwaters more than six feet high stranded 600,000 residents and halted traffic on a 30-mile stretch of highway, the newspaper said.

The floods also affected 2.5 million acres of cultivated land and caused direct economic losses estimated at least $1.1 billion, the newspaper said.

=============== translation into Japanese (日本語に翻訳)======================

サン・ニュース 1998年7月25日










Masumi Hayashi (photographer)


Masumi Hayashi (at age 60) and her neighbor, the 51-year-old artist and sculptor John Jackson (who also worked as a maintenance man at the apartment complex), were shot to death by a 29-year-old neighbor named Jacob Cifelli in their apartment building on Detroit Avenue on the West Side of Cleveland, Ohio, on August 17, 2006, after she had complained about Cifelli's loud music.Jackson was attempting to assist Hayashi after she was shot, when he was slain. She is survived by a son, Dean Keesey of Oakland; a daughter, Lisa Takata; a brother, Seigo; and four sisters: Connie, Amy, Nancy and Joanne.

=============== translation into Japanese (日本語に翻訳)======================






Bureaucrats' final meeting?
Japan Times Sept. 15, 2009

Bittersweet gathering as DPJ prepares to pull plug on traditional power base

The nation's top bureaucrats on Monday held their last meeting under the government of Prime Minister Taro Aso to set the agenda for the following day's Cabinet meeting.

It was possibly the final such ritual because the Democratic Party of Japan, which will take the reins of government Wednesday, has vowed to shift power from bureaucrats to politicians.

The meetings of administrative vice ministers, held in the prime minister's office Mondays and Thursdays — the days before Cabinet meetings — are believed to date back to the establishment of the Cabinet structure during the Meiji Era (1868-1912) and have long been a symbol of bureaucratic control over the decision-making process.

Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Iwao Uruma, who has been chairing the meetings and is resigning from his post Wednesday, urged his fellow vice ministers to speak their minds when necessary regardless of whether the meetings are abolished.

"Even if the meetings are done away with, it is important for the members of the meetings to boost their horizontal cooperation and speak to Cabinet ministers if something is likely to be done to the detriment of the nation and the people," he said during Monday's meeting.

The DPJ, which advocates abolishing the meetings to give elected officials greater power in making decisions, will be launching a new Cabinet after Yukio Hatoyama is voted in as prime minister.

While a Cabinet meeting is the government's highest decision-making body, attended by every minister, what is discussed has been decided in advance by the administrative vice ministers, or the highest-ranking bureaucrats, in their twice-weekly meeting. There is, however, no legal basis for the vice ministers to hold their meeting.

The DPJ also aims to abolish the regular news conferences the vice ministers have held after their meetings, on the grounds "there will be no administrative vice ministers' meetings anymore," as DPJ Secretary General Katsuya Okada put it last week.

Brushing aside concerns this will limit public access to information, Okada said, "It won't infringe upon the public's right to know."

Uruma said the current format has served for generations by enabling bureaucrats to coordinate policies before Cabinet members gathered to make decisions.

But now that the venue is expected to be abolished, "I hope both (bureaucrats and politicians) will bring their wisdom together as they go about building a system in which Cabinet meetings will run smoothly in unanimity," he said at a news conference

Several administrative vice ministers said at their news conferences after Monday's meeting they also open to the new administration's policy.

"I don't think (the meetings) are the one and only measure to ensure the unity of the Cabinet," said vice farm minister Michio Ide.

Andrew Jackson (Wikipedia)
Attack and assassination attempt

On January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol. When Jackson was leaving the Capitol out of the East Portico after the funeral of South Carolina Representative Warren R. Davis, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed and deranged housepainter from England, either burst from a crowd or stepped out from hiding behind a column and aimed a pistol at Jackson which misfired. Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol which also misfired. It has since been postulated that the moisture from the humid weather of the day contributed to the double misfiring. Lawrence was then restrained, with legend saying that Jackson attacked Lawrence with his cane, prompting his aides to restrain him. Others present, including David Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence.

Richard Lawrence gave the doctors several reasons for the shooting. He had recently lost his job painting houses and somehow blamed Jackson. He claimed that with the President dead, "money would be more plenty" (a reference to Jackson’s struggle with the Bank of the United States) and that he "could not rise until the President fell." Finally, he informed his interrogators that he was a deposed English King—specifically, Richard III, dead since 1485—and that Jackson was merely his clerk. He was deemed insane, institutionalized, and never punished for his assassination attempt.

Afterwards, due to curiosity concerning the double misfires, the pistols were tested and retested. Each time they performed perfectly. When these results were known, many believed that Jackson had been protected by the same Providence which had protected the young nation. This national pride was a large part of the Jacksonian cultural myth fueling American expansion in the 1830s.

=============== translation into Japanese (日本語に翻訳)======================




August 15 is never called "the Victory over Japan Day" in Japan.

August 15 is never called "the Victory over Japan Day" in Japan. Instead, the day is celebrated as the end of World War II. The official name for the day is however "the day for mourning of war dead and praying for peace".

When Japanese speak of "people", they indicate not the people in general but the Japanese. For the Japanese government and for mindless Japanese followers, the day is never "the Defeat in the Pacific War Day".

When the Japanese government speaks of "peace", it particularly indicates "peaceful Japan", which also indicates that "Japan rules the world".

===== Statement on the anniversary of the end of World War II ============

The Democratic Party of Japan 2009/08/15

On August 15, DPJ President Yukio Hatoyama issued the following statement:

Today, we have reached the 64th anniversary of the end of World War II. I would like to express my sincere condolences, along with the Japanese people, for all those who lost their lives in this conflict, both in Japan and overseas.

August 15 is a day when we remember those who lost their lives in World War II, and direct our thoughts to the scars of that conflict, which still remain today. I believe that it is the mission and responsibility entrusted to those of us alive in this modern era, to ensure that we never forget that terrible and senseless war, no matter how many years have passed, and face history head-on, using what we learn from that experience to build peace, in order that such a tragedy will never happen again.

Even in today’s world, conflicts, terrorism and violence are continually occurring, and we face the serious threat of weapons of mass destruction. The missile launches and nuclear experiments carried out by North Korea are a clear threat to our nation and to the international community, and cannot be permitted under any circumstances. We will liaise with the international community, and make every effort on behalf of world peace, as well as devoting all our strength to alleviate the threat from North Korea.

This April, US President Obama proclaimed his intention to work toward a “nuclear-free world”. The world is now taking this opportunity to move toward the abolition of nuclear weapons. As the only nation to have suffered the effects of the atomic bomb, the abolition of nuclear weapons is a fervent wish shared by all the citizens of Japan. We are prepared to overcome any difficulties, and to aim determinedly for progress. We will join hands with President Obama and call for the abolition of nuclear weapons.

On this anniversary of the end of World War II, the Democratic Party of Japan has renewed its determination to face our past history squarely, to continue with our efforts to connect our reflections and the lessons learnt from this with peace for future generations and to work to build world peace together with the international community. We vow to strive to realise these goals.

King Kalakaua's Visit with Emperor Meiji, Yokohama-Tokyo, 1881
Polynesian Voyaging Society


Originally built in 1871 for the Liverpool to New York crossing, the Oceanic was chartered by the Occidental & Oriental S.S. Co. for San Francisco-Yokohama-Hong Kong service in 1876. King David Kalakaua traveled on the Oceanic from San Francisco to Tokyo in 1881.

King David Kalakaua

King David Kalakaua was elected to rule Hawai'i by the Hawaiian Legislature in 1874 and reigned until his death in 1891.

In 1881, after sailing from Hawai'i on the City of Sydney, Kalakaua boarded the Oceanic in San Francisco; twenty-four days later, on March 4, he and his traveling party landed at Yokohama in Edo (Tokyo) Bay, where he was greeted with a 21-gun salute and a military band playing the Hawaiian National Anthem. The king and his party were astonished that the band had learned to play their anthem. The houses of Yokohama displayed Japanese and Hawaiian flags. (Emperor of Japan: Meiji and his World, 1852-1912 by Donald Keene [New York: Columbia University Press, 2002].)

"King Kalakaua wrote back from Tokyo on March 15, 1881, 'Our reception has been most cordial and pleasant with the Emperor [Meiji]. He extended the hospitality of being his guest during our stay in the City of Tokio, occupying the same buildings that General Grant did when he was here and other distinguished guests, Prince Henri of Germany and the Duke of Genoa.' The subject of possible Japanese emigration to Hawaii received some consideration by the Japanese officials. And on February 8, 1885, the first group of Japanese immigrants (676 men, 159 women, and 108 children) came to Hawaii. Major credit for this successful endeavor was due to 'the personal friendship of the Emperor of Japan for King Kalakaua,' commented the editor of the Pacific Commercial Advertiser." (from "A Hawaiian King Visits Hong Kong, 1881" by Tin-Yuke Char at http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/44/4401330.pdf)

During his visit to Tokyo, Kalakaua also secretly discussed with the Emperor the possibility of forming a league of Asian countries to oppose the domination and oppression of European countries. Kalakaua said that he would propose the league to the leaders of China, Siam, India, and Persia on his world tour, if Meiji would agree to head the league. Meiji was understanding, but pointed out that China wouldn't join if Japan was leading the league; but he would consider the King's proposal and send a response. After conferring with his cabinet, Meiji declined the offer of leadership for the initiative.

=============== translation into Japanese (日本語に一部翻訳)======================


Fake Bottom-up Decision-making System is an artful buck-passing strategy.

Japan's conspiracies include the Fake Bottom-up Decision-making System. This system is seen in every corner of Japan. But the system is so artfully maintained that most Japanese take the system for granted.

This system is very inefficient. And I can not explain how this system has been formed in Japan. However, once we examine the system from the point of conspiracy, we understand that the system is really an artful one.

Generally speaking, it is not easy to make up a perfect buck-passing system, particularly for leaders of a conspiracy system. When leaders make a decision and order their subordinates to carry out part of the conspiracy, they are often embarrassed by honest and simple questions from the subordinates.

To prevent this blunder, leaders give oral orders to each of their subordinates and order them to return their proposal exactly according to their oral orders.

At this moment, subordinates feel that they are safe because they are given detailed jobs, though they are suspicious to some extent. And the subordinates return their proposals. They believe that they have enough excuses.

But as the years go by, all the conspiracies seem to have been the plots designed and carried out only by the subordinates.

In addition, to prevent further suspicion from the subordinates, leaders repeat such practice from a big project to a tiny routine. And finally the Fake Bottom-up Decision-making System becomes the daily routine for everybody in the organization.

Ringi System

This is the Ringi System in Japanese companies.

Not only business organizations but also the central and local governments, schools and the police have this system.

To make matters worse, wrong (even opposite) explanations are indicated on dictionaries and instruction manuals. This is also part of Japan's conspiracy.

Ringi ( English Japanese dictionary)

The ringi system is a very common way of arriving at decisions from "the bottom up" in Japanese companies. A lower-level employee writes up a proposal and this proposal makes its way up the organizational ladder, involving everyone who may be involved with the proposed idea.

Letter of Resignation

The above Fake Bottom-up Decision-making System is particularly conspicuous when a worker is fired.

When Japanese corporate managers fire an employee, they don't say "You are fired!" Instead, they say, "Give in your letter of resignation!" And there are some words that are already typed on the letter.

Due to my personal reasons, I want to retire. And I sincerely hope that the company will allow me to resign on such and such day.

This is really a ridiculous system. But in fact few Japanese are aware of this trick.


The same can be said in the police interrogation.

The police investigator says to the suspect,

"Seal this document with your thumb," and "Write what I am saying down on this paper.

In the end, the interrogator would give a blank deposition and say, "Seal this document with your thumb." Everything was at the mercy of the interrogator.

"If you confess earlier, the charges will be lessened. But if you maintain your innocence, you will give the judge an unfavorable impression. If you don't want to be executed, seal this paper with your thumb."
This is another form of "Fake Bottom-up Decision-making System".

Later, the suspect would be able to retract the confession. Yet the decisive evidence, the deposition, is very powerful.

Frequent Visit to Tokyo by Local Government Bureaucrats

Japanese local government bureaucrats frequently visit offices of the central government in Tokyo. But this is not their voluntary job. They are actually ordered to do so by the central government. They propose a variety of policies just according to what they are told by the central government bureaucrats.

Anti-base Protest in Okinawa

The Japanese government wants the US forces in Okinawa to go home. But in fact Japan can not get out the US forces. So, the Japanese government secretly mobilizes local puppet people for the protest.

This strategy is frequently employed by the Japanese organizations, often combined with another artful trick, "Hero-of-justice Tactic". The Japanese government often intentionally creates onerous problems against the US and solves them pretty well just for the purpose of regaining trust of the US.


The Fake Bottom-up Decision-making System is extremely important to understand the Japanese society, the Japanese government and the Japanese conspiracy.

Suspicious Incidents which seem to have been carried out for the puropse of distracting people's attantion.

Fort Hood shooting on November 5, 2009

Ferry runs aground off Mie, leaves slick on November 13, 2009

Fire at an indoor shooting range in the South Korean port of Busan on November 14, 2009

Death of Tokugawa Ieyasu
History of Kawagoe City

On April 17, 1616, Tokugawa Ieyasu passed away at the age of 75 at Sumpu Castle in Shizuoka. He was the first Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate and had lived an eventful life.・・・・・・・


※ In this book, the date of Ieyasu's death is described according to the Japanese calendar.

Shizo Kanakuri

Swedish authorities considered him missing for 50 years before discovering that he was living in Japan and had competed in intervening Olympic marathons. In 1966 he was contacted by Swedish Television and offered to complete his run. He accepted and completed the Marathon in 54 years, 8 months, 6 days, 8 hours, 32 minutes and 20.3 seconds.


※ I believe that this event was invented and planned by Japan.

Prosecutors to quiz Hatoyama's mom on funds
Japan Times Nov. 28, 2009

Prosecutors are considering questioning Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama's 87-year-old mother over the political donations scandal her son is embroiled in, sources said Friday.

It has been reported that Hatoyama received a total of ¥900 million in "loans" from his mother over five years to 2008 and some of the money may have been recorded under fictitious donors in his political funds reports.

A special squad of the Tokyo District Public Prosecutor's Office is believed to have decided to ask her how she started giving the funds to the prime minister, the sources said.

Meanwhile, the prosecutors have questioned a former policy secretary of Hatoyama on a voluntary basis over the shady funds, the sources said.

The former secretary, who resigned in June, served as treasurer of Hatoyama's fund-management organization, according to the sources. The aide was not identified.

The special squad is examining the source of more than ¥300 million that it believes was falsely declared in Hatoyama's political funds reports.

The former secretary has denied his involvement in the alleged falsification. He said earlier: "The accounting of the fund-management body was controlled by a former state-paid secretary. There are so many mysteries" in Hatoyama's accounting.

Under the the Political Funds Control Law, the former policy secretary could be punished even if he is not directly involved in altering the reports.

Criminal complaints have been filed by a Tokyo group against the ex-aide and a former state-paid secretary as well as Hatoyama.

Japan's leader apologizes for donation scandal
washington Post December 1, 2009

For politicians in Japan, the road to scandal usually winds through construction companies, defense contractors or a mistress. For newly elected Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, the road leads to his mother, an octogenarian heiress.

Prosecutors have traced about $10.4 million that Yasuko Hatoyama, 87, gave to her son over a five-year period ending in 2008, sources in the investigation have told major news outlets in Japan. Some of that money was reportedly funneled into fake campaign donations, listed as coming from dead people or from people who never contributed.

Hatoyama apologized Monday in parliament for the donations scandal, but suggested that he will remain prime minister unless he is prosecuted.

"In light of the decision to be made by law enforcement authorities, I would like to fulfill my duties," he said. "If there were any contributions by my mother, I will take appropriate action according to the law."

The investigation is hurting Hatoyama's credibility with the public, although so far it has found no evidence showing his direct involvement in illegal activity. Hatoyama's mother might soon be questioned by prosecutors, but she has not been named as a suspect.

In a weekend poll, three-quarters of respondents said they were dissatisfied with Hatoyama's vague explanations for the donations. Last week, when reporters asked him about money from mother, he said that he was "wondering what was going on without me knowing about it" and that he was "very surprised by it all."

Hatoyama became prime minister in September, after his Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) won a historic landslide in an election that halted 54 years of near-continuous dominance by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).

The LDP had become deeply unpopular, in part because of a long history of campaign-finance scandals among party elders. Hatoyama promised that his party would break up the cozy triangle of back-scratching and payoffs among bureaucrats, politicians and big business.

That promise continues to resonate with the public, and approval ratings for Hatoyama's government remain well above 60 percent. But a steady drip of leaks from the Tokyo prosecutor's office about fundraising improprieties -- allegedly involving Hatoyama family money -- is beginning to push up his disapproval ratings, which jumped three percentage points in the past month, to 25 percent.

Hatoyama, 62, a Stanford-trained engineer and grandson of a prime minister, comes from an immensely wealthy and influential family. He and his brother, also a politician, grew up in a European-style family palace in Tokyo and are believed to have assets of at least $100 million.

Their mother, Yasuko, is the eldest daughter of the founder of Bridgestone Corp., the world's largest tire manufacturer.

Questions about family money in fundraising have dogged Hatoyama since early summer when, as a candidate for prime minister, he admitted that a fundraising aide had reported fake campaign donations using the names of dead people and others. That aide has resigned and appears likely to be prosecuted.

In a public show of contrition for that scandal, Hatoyama apologized in June and said he was correcting campaign reports as he became aware of improprieties.

Since then, the prosecution's investigation has broadened as the amount of allegedly fake donations has jumped from $250,000 to about $4 million. According to leaks from the investigation, which have appeared almost daily in the past week in Japan's leading newspapers, about a third of the fake donations came from Hatoyama's mother. Most of the rest of the falsified donations have been traced back to the Hatoyama family's asset-management company.

As new allegations have become public, Hatoyama has frequently declined to comment. Once the official inquiry is complete, he told parliament Monday, he will give the public a full explanation.

Anesthesia History Association

1805 October 13: Japanese physician Hanaoka Seishu [1760-1835] performs an operation for breast cancer using "tsusensan" as an oral general anesthetic on a patient named Kan Aiya. The research behind this event is portrayed in Sawako Ariyoshi's novel The Doctor's Wife.


※ The date is based on the Japanese calendar. "1805" is "Bunka 2" in the Japanese calendar. Please refer to this site to confirm it (input the date 1805-12-3).

Typhoon Yunya (Diding)
1991 Pacific typhoon season (Wikipedia)

After a month without any activity in the Western Pacific, a weak tropical depression (with winds of only 10 knots) developed just east of the Philippines and south of the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough on June 11th. Located in an area of little wind shear, it headed southwestward, developing spiral-band outflow and becoming a tropical storm on the 12th. As a small central dense overcast (CDO) developed over Yunya, it rapidly developed, becoming a typhoon on the 13th as it paralleled the eastern Philippines. The mid-level ridge forced Yunya westward, where it briefly reached a peak intensity of 120 mph (195 km/h) winds on the 14th. Subsequently, the eastward building of the subtropical ridge produced unfavorable vertical wind shear that weakened Yunya to a minimal typhoon before hitting Dingalan Bay, Luzon early on the 15th. Yunya left Luzon as a minimal tropical storm at Lingayen Gulf. It turned northward due to a break in the ridge, and dissipated on the 17th near southern Taiwan due to the vertical shear.

Yunya would normally have been an uneventful cyclone, but on the day it hit Luzon, where the colossal eruption of Mount Pinatubo took place. The ash cloud that normally would have been dispersed across the oceans was redistributed over Luzon by the cyclonic winds of the typhoon, greatly exacerbating the damage caused by the eruption. The water-laden ash fell over the evacuated Clark Air Base, as well as the rest of Luzon, resulting in downed power lines and the collapse of flat-roofed buildings. In some areas it was practically raining mud.

Yunya exited Luzon through the Lingayen Gulf as a weak tropical storm and then turned north toward a break in the subtropical ridge. The system continued to weaken due to the strong vertical wind shear. It then brushed the southern coast of Taiwan as a tropical depression and finally dissipated before it could complete full recurvature into the mid-latitude westerlies. Yunya directly caused one death from the flooding and heavy rainfall it left.

=============== translation into Japanese (日本語に翻訳)======================





※ The Japanese government often reveals, or insinuates, its conspiracy in the fiction film or the fiction movie. Criminals for pleasure often insinuate their crimes. The Japanese government's propensity of conspiracy is almost the same as that of such criminals. The phrase "artificial eruption" is found only on the Wikipedia site "The Return of Godzilla".


The Return of Godzilla

This film picks up in 1984, 30 years after the original Godzilla was killed. A fishing vessel, caught in a terrible storm, encounters a new Godzilla. Days later, reporter Goro Maki is sailing in the oceans and discovers the wrecked fishing vessel. He investigates and finds only one survivor, Hiroshi Okumura. The other crew members were killed by a giant sea louse, a parasite which had been mutated due to contact with Godzilla. In Tokyo Prime Minister Mitamura orders Godzilla's appearence to be kept secret to avoid panic. Maki pays a visit to Dr Hayashida after his editer refused to print his story there he recognizes a girl he saw in Okumura's photo and learns that is Okumura's sister Naoko Okumura. He tells her that her brother is alive but is being kept at the police hospital because he saw Godzilla. Naoko rushes to the hospital and is reunited with brother however she gets angry when she finds out Maki only reunited them to get a good story. Godzilla attacks again and destroys a Soviet submarine carrying nuclear missiles. Faced with an escalating situation between the Soviets, who believe their submarine was sunk by the Americans, and the Americans, who fear an unwarranted counter strike from the Soviets, the Japanese Government is forced to go public with the news of Godzilla. Meanwhile, Godzilla attacks a nuclear powerplant. During the attack, it is discovered that Godzilla uses a homing signal similar to that of birds who fly south for winter. Goro and his friends decide to use this to their advantage and develop a method to lure Godzilla away from major cities utilizing a high frequency homing signal.

Godzilla is later sighted at Tokyo Bay, causing most of the civilians in Tokyo to flee. The military attacks Godzilla with guns, jets and missiles with little or no effect. Godzilla then proceeds to Tokyo. He destroys a missile control system on a Soviet freighter in Tokyo Bay and continues walking through the city, perpetrating massive destruction. In another scene shortly afterwards, the last dying crewmember of the Soviet freighter docked in Tokyo Bay tries to abort the failsafe launch of a nuclear missile from a satellite in space in order to kill Godzilla. However, the crewmember is killed in the process. The SDF launches their newest weapon the Super X to combat Godzilla. During the initial confrontation, Godzilla has an allergic reaction to the cadmium shells and is poisoned. Godzilla then begins to die from the reaction. Meanwhile, the Japanese government finds out about the Soviet nuclear missile and asks the Americans to shoot it down. The Americans agree and are successful but the missile collision in the stratosphere causes a massive EMP, and then a radioactive lighting storm that revives Godzilla. Godzilla has a final battle with the Super X and manages to destroy it by knocking it to the ground and toppling a building down on it. Scientists at Mt. Mihara manage to get their lure working, which calls out to Godzilla from across the Sea of Japan. Attracted by magnetic waves transmitted from their satellite dish on Mt. Mihara on Oshima Island, Godzilla walks to it and realizes he has been tricked. Godzilla falls into Mt. Mihara as he investigates the satellite dish. The SDF detonates a number of powerful bombs, resulting in an artificial eruption. Falling debris traps Godzilla in the mountain, with no way out.

CINCPAC/CINCPOA Outline Campaign Plan GRANITE II of June 3, 1944.
HyperWar Foundation

Early in the war, operations to be conducted and bases to be established were centrally determined in Washington. However, as the war production and force generation effort increasingly bore fruit, expanding availability of forces and increasing complexity of operations and logistics required more and more decentralization to the theater level. This generally inspired the increasing tempo of the war, beginning with a slow, uncertain beat in the Solomons campaign, building to an increasingly strident and staccato drum roll in the Central Pacific.

The planning tool by which this was orchestrated was GRANITE and GRANITE II, which, according to Rear Admiral Henry Eccles USN (Ret.), were the first true "campaign plans" developed by the United States.140 Basically, these were schedules of strategy which established, phase by phase, the operational and logistic tasks to be undertaken--together with force estimates for each--to achieve the strategic aims postulated by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Among other things, base development requirements were reconciled with amphibious assault objectives and subsequent air and a naval operations from the newly seized and constructed base. These campaign plans were executed phase-by-phase by a series of operation plans (e.g., FORAGER, the capture of Saipan, Guam, and Tinian; STALEMATE, the capture of Palau).

These campaign plans served two important functions. First, they served as a time-phased estimate of forces and materiel by which the Joint Chiefs of Staff could coordinate theater operations with war production and military force generation as well as force and transportation apportionment among competing theater commanders

Philippines Volcano on Brink of Eruption
ABC NEWS Dec 17, 2009

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology has raised its alert level to three on a scale of five, following increased activity of the Mayon volcano, which is the country's most active volcano. In this image, lava cascades down the slopes of the volcano in Legazpi city, Albay province, about 310 miles south of Manila, at dawn Dec. 15, 2009. (Nelson Salting/AP Photo )

Philippine Government Targets Evacuation Of 9,000 Families Near Mayon Volcano In Next 3 Days
All Headline News December 16, 2009

The Office of the Civil Defense in Bicol region said Tuesday 3,000 families who live at the foot of Mayon Volcano in Albay had been evacuated and moved to safer grounds. The OCD's target is to move the remaining 9,000 families within the six-kilometer permanent danger zone and one-kilometer southeast sector within the next three days.

The first wave of evacuees are from the towns of Malilipot, Daraga, Camalig, Guinobatan and Ligao and Tabaco City.

The OCD started the forced evacuation after volcanologists raised on Monday the alert level to 3 as increased volcanic activities such as more frequent earthquakes and sustained crater glow were observed.

If the alert level would be raised to 4, eruption would be possible in days, and the OCD would expand the danger zone to 8 kilometers.

Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology Director Renato Solidum said lava is trickling down the 2,460-meter volcano - known for its near perfect cone shape. If the magma continues to ascend, more lava flows should be expected, and even possibly an explosion.

Residents who evacuated their homes have resigned to spending a lonely and harsh Christmas in evacuation centers.

The last time there was a major volcanic eruption in the Philippines was in July 1998, when Mount Pinatubo in Pampanga erupted. The eruption caused global temperature to rise by one degree Celsius.

Mayon Volcano
ECONOMIC expert.com

Mayon Volcano is a volcano in the Philippines. It is found in the province of Albay in the Bicol Region. Its almost perfectly-shaped cone is considered by many people to be more beautiful than Mt. Fuji in Japan. A few kilometers to the south of the volcano is Legazpi City.

Mayon is classified by volcanologists as a stratovolcano (composite volcano). Its symmetric cone was formed through alternate pyroclastic and lavaLava is molten rock that a volcano expels during an eruption. Due to its high temperature, lava can be quite fluid when first exuded from a volcanic vent, but eventually solidifies into rock. However, the lava may flow many miles before solidification. flows. Mayon is the most active volcano in the country, having erupted around 50 times for the past 400 years.

The most destructive eruption of Mayon occurred on February 1February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 333 days remaining, (334 in leap years). Events 1662 The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. 1788 Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet pate, 1814Events January 14 Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden January 29 French army of Emperor Napoleon I wins the Battle of Brienne January 31 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas becomes Supreme Director of Argentina. February Congress of Chatillon see George Hamilton Gordo. Lava flows buried the town of Cagsawa and 1,200 people perished. Only the belltower of the town church remained.

Geology of Sakurajima Volcano
Research Information Database from Tsukuba Advanced Computing Center

Sakurajima Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. It is located in Kagoshima Bay, 3km east of Kagoshima city, near the southern end of Kyushu. The volcano is a post-caldera cone of Aira Caldera and lies at its southern rim. The caldera occupies the northern part of Kagoshima Bay and was formed about 22,000 years before present by outflow of the Ito Pyroclatic Flow which covers extensive areas in south Kyushu.

 The volcano is composed of two steep stratocones, Kita-dake (north mountain) and Minami-dake (south mountain) with a few lateral volcanoes at their flank and foot and surrounded by gentlysloping foot areas. The major constituents of the two cones are coarse pyroclastic materials associated with lesser amounts of lava flows while those of the foot areas are lava flows and fan deposits. Minamidake volcano is active at present, emitting ash and gas, occasionally with lithic blocks and pumice, from summit craters.

 Historic records of the eruption of this volcano go back to the 8th century although the description is not in detail. Well-documented large activities are of Bummei (1471-76), An-ei (1779) and Taisho (1914 -15) eras. At each active period large quantities of pumice were ejected in the early stage of the eruption followed by lava outflow from lateral vents. The volume of erupted material in each cycle is estimated to be 1.5 to 2km3. A lava flow (T1) of Taisho eruption buried a strait between the island of Sakurajima and the Osumi Peninsula making the island into a peninsula. At the Showa eruption of 1946, a lava, 0.08km3 in volume, flowed out without ejection of pumice.

 The activity of Sakurajima Volcano as an insular volcano started about 13,000 years ago as inferred from the accumulation rate of pumice-fall (Fig.5) and of ash-fall deposits, some of which were dated by 14C method.

The rocks of Sakurajima Volcano are pyroxene andesite and dacite with SiO2 content from 57 to 67 weight percent. These rocks, however, have similar appearance with the same phenocrystic assemblage of plagioclase, hypersthene, augite and magnetite, with or without olivine, in the fine-grained groundmass. Chemical analyses of some representative rocks are shown in Table 1.


Tenmonkan located in the central area of Kagoshima City is the biggest downtown area in southern Kyushu.

It is called by this name because Meijikan, a facility built in 1779 by the lord of Satsuma as a place for astronomical observation and calendar making, was otherwise known as Tenmonkan which literally means "astronomical center."

With shopping arcades and malls, you will find a variety of different facilities pertaining to shopping, gourmet, and entertainment such as caf?s, restaurants, eating establishments serving local dishes, and stores selling general merchandise and souvenirs.

Although a stylish town crowded with busy shoppers during daytime, its atmosphere changes drastically after dark as a nightlife district glittering with bright neon lights. Indeed, it is a popular area loved by local residents and tourists alike.

Okubo and Hyakunin-cho
Multicultural City The View from Okubo

This area was occupied by the Teppogumi Hyakunintai (100 musketeer brigade) of the Iga warriors that protected the Tokugawa Shogun during the Edo period. The musket-bearing samurai cultivated azaleas to such an extent that the area became known for them. The area also became popular as a destination spot within Edo (Map of Edo Famous Places). The area from Toyama-cho to the east and as far as Ichigaya housed many daimyo residences, and after the Meiji period (1868-1912), it was mostly used for military purposes. It was also home to the high military commanders until the middle of the Second World War. For nearly 60 years after the war, the outward appearance of this district remained largely the same, but the composition of the shops in the commercial centers changed significantly.

The development of the area around Shinjuku Station and the transformation of Okubo and Hyakunin-cho are interrelated. The areas of Hyakunin-cho 1-chome and Okubo 1-chome are especially reflective of the lifestyles of the people who lived there back in that time. These neighborhoods had especially close ties with Kabuki-cho, as the area north of Shokuan-dori Street became a bedroom community that allowed the people who worked at night in the entertainment district to live nearby without having to commute by train. This was also the time when overall economic growth helped promote the growth of the entertainment district. From the 1980s onward, waves of people from all over the world, especially from nearby Asian countries, came pouring into Japan in search of new employment and educational opportunities. Over time, the people who had originally come as exchange students became the next generation of entrepreneurs in the Okubo and Hyakunin-cho districts, and the number of people putting down roots here increased. This has become the new choice location for developing new businesses.

The area now has numerous language schools, places of worship for different religions, and Asian restaurants. It also features an abundance of Korean restaurants, as well as the Koryo Museum. It is known among music enthusiasts nationwide for shops that specialize in musical instruments other than pianos. The areas of Hyakunin-cho 3-chome and 4-chome to the north, as well as many of the former military areas, are now the sites of hospitals, residential complexes, and research laboratories.

Japanese Firearms
Air, Land and Sea

In Japan, the Onin Wars of 1467–76 had set in train a period of political fragmentation when local warlords, the daimyo, built up independent domains. The first arquebuses were introduced in Japan in 1543 by Portuguese traders (Fernão Mendes Pinto), who landed by accident on Tanegashima, an island south of Kyūshū in the region controlled by the Shimazu clan. By 1550, copies of the Portuguese arquebus were being produced in large quantities, and they were often seen on the battlefields all over Japan.

Units of musketeers (teppotai) played a crucial role in the unification of Japan under Oda Nobunaga, who captured the royal capital of Kyoto in 1568 and conquered most of Japan before his death in 1582. During this campaign, Nobunaga employed 3000 arquebuses in a field battle, protected by field fortifications. Lord Oda Nobunaga placed three lines of ashigaru armed with these weapons behind wooden palisades and prepared for the cavalry charge of his opponent.

Battles in Japan at this time became more similar to the pitched encounters of European armies than the challenge and counterchallenge of elite samurai warriors that characterized earlier warfare there. Japanese armies showed considerable technical and tactical ingenuity; at Osaka in 1576, Nobunaga had seven ships constructed, shielded by armed plates, which were armed with canons and muskets, creating a very early version of an ironclad; while at Nagashina in 1575, Nobunaga’s musketeers fired in ranks in rotation, some years before the practice became established in Europe. The three-line method allowed two lines to reload while the other would fire. Such tactics allowed a balance of mass firepower to compensate for poor accuracy with a reasonable rate of fire.

Japan PM apologises over funding scandal
BBC NEWS 24 December 2009

Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has apologised after two former aides were charged with violating the laws on political funding.

Prosecutors indicted the aides earlier on Thursday for misreporting millions of dollars of donations.

Analysts say the indictments are a big embarrassment for Mr Hatoyama's new government, which took power in August.

The prime minister said he felt "a deep responsibility" for what happened, but added that he would not resign.

Family fortune

Former aide Keiji Katsuba was charged with falsifying reports to make it appear that 360m yen ($3.9m) in donations to the ruling Democratic Party (DPJ) came from individual supporters, when in fact most of the money was given by Mr Hatoyama's family.

The prime minister's former chief accountant Daisuke Haga was also indicted - accused of failing to pay sufficient attention to the false reports - and has been ordered to pay a 300,000 yen fine, according to Jiji Press.

Both men were fired before Mr Hatoyama's election win over the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) in August.

There is no suspicion of bribery because of the origin of the funds, and the prime minister himself is not expected to be charged.

He has said he had no idea about the misreporting of donations.

Mr Hatoyama hails from a wealthy family, sometimes dubbed Japan's version of the Kennedys. His mother is the eldest daughter of Bridgestone founder Shojiro Ishibashi and his grandfather was a former prime minister.

The scandal has been on the front pages of Japanese newspapers for days, and soon after the indictments were announced, Mr Hatoyama told a news conference: "I feel deep responsibility."

But he ruled out the possibility of resignation, saying: "I've decided I should not give up on myself nor my job."

A donations scandal forced Ichiro Ozawa, Mr Hatoyama's predecessor as leader of the DPJ, to step down from the post in May.

Amid continuing economic problems, Mr Hatoyama has already seen support for his government fall since the elections that brought him to power.

The DPJ is marking its 100th day in office on Thursday, but correspondents say the news of the indictments will give it little cause for celebration.


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